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A Case Report of Subtle EKG Abnormalities in Acute Coronary Syndromes Indicative of Type One Myocardial InfarctionDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8W06X
The ECG does show multiple subtle abnormalities that in conjunction with his symptoms and risk factors are concerning for ischemia and/or occlusion of the coronary artery vessel. 1) ST depression in aVL. Although slight, the ST segment is below the TP segment or isoelectric point (blue circles). 2) Focal hyper QT waves. The T-waves in II, III, AVF V2, V3, and V4 are hyper acute, namely peaked and tall in relationship to the QRS. These are best displayed in leads II, III, and AVF where the T-waves are taller than the QRS amplitude (vertical blue lines). 3) Straightening off the ST segment. Multiple leads display a straight ST segment namely aVL, III, AVF, and V2 (red lines). Of note, the length of the straight ST segment is greater than 1/4 the amplitude of the QRS (purple lines). 4) Although subtle, these abnormalities are focal in nature.
Case Report of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus with Concurrent ParotitisDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8R93N
The presence of soft tissue stranding about the parotid gland suggested an underlying inflammatory or infectious process of the parotid gland. Cellulitis was considered as a possible diagnosis as well, given the presence of soft tissue stranding in the dermis that is adjacent to the parotid gland. Fortunately, no enhancement was seen in local muscles, fascia, or bones to suggest a myositis, fasciitis, or osteomyelitis. By using the anatomy of the patient and understanding the changes that occur on CT when inflammation is present, the appropriate depth and location of infection can be made, allowing for appropriate treatment regimens.
A Man with Sore Throat—A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8MH0B
Video laryngoscopy of the upper airway was performed two days after initial burn injury. The images obtained demonstrated laryngeal edema and inflammation near the epiglottis. The dot identifies the epiglottis and the asterix identifies the area of moderate thermal burns. Imaging also demonstrated adequate patency of airway and ruled out the need for intubation at that time.
The Continued Rise of Syphilis: A Case Report to Aid in Identification of the Great ImitatorDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8R93N
Images taken of the bilateral palmar skin lesions at our institution showed multi-centimeter, well-demarcated, friable, verrucous, crusted plaques with overlying fine yellow crust. Lesions such as these are suspicious for syphilitic gummas seen with cutaneous tertiary syphilis.
Imaging Findings of Small Bowel – Diverticulitis: A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8F078
Bedside ultrasound was performed and showed thickened bowel wall (orange marker), fat enhancement (green marker), and phlegmonous structure with central echogenicity (yellow marker). Imaging of the abdomen and pelvis with CT showed marked wall thickening and inflammatory change involving a 7.0cm segment of the distal/terminal ileum suspicious for severe ileitis with phlegmon and microabscess on the coronal image (yellow arrow). Additonally, the transverse images show a small rim-enhancing focus within this region of inflammation measuring up to 1.4cm which could represent microabscess (yellow arrow). Diagnosis of diverticulitis by ultrasound is made by identifying the following findings: colon wall thicker than 5mm, fat enhancement, evidence of abscess, visualized diverticuli, air artifacts suggesting diverticuli, and tenderness with compression of the probe.6 Diagnosis of diverticulitis by CT is made by identifying the following findings: colonic wall thickening, pericolic fat stranding, abscess formation and enhancement of the colonic wall. Often, these signs are associated with an identifiable inflamed diverticulum.7
Aortic Dissection Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8964Z
In transverse view, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) showed an anechoic circular true lumen (blue highlight) and half-circular anechoic false lumen (green highlight), separated by a near hyperechoic dissection flap (orange highlight) that pulsated with blood flow. When viewed in sagittal orientation, the anechoic true lumen (blue highlight) appears longitudinal, separated from the false lumen (green highlight) by a dissection flap (orange highlight). Stills showing the measurements of these dissections are also provided.
Electrocardiogram Abnormalities Following Diphenhydramine Ingestion: A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J85H1P
The blue arrow points to one of the terminal R waves in aVR, and the green arrow points to one of the large S waves in lead I, indicating right axis deviation. These findings are pathognomonic for sodium channel blockade. Due to the specific ECG findings and knowledge of diphenhydramine overdose, it was evident that these ECG findings were due to a cardiac sodium channel blockade. Sodium channels are essential within myocardial tissue to ensure the rapid upstroke of cardiac action potential, as well as rapid impulse conduction throughout cardiac tissue. Therefore, sodium channel blockers tend to exhibit significant dysrhythmic properties due to severe conduction disturbances.2 The blockage of the cardiac sodium channels appears as terminal R waves in aVR as well as terminal S waves in lead I due to delaying, and possibly blocking, the electrical conduction pathway of the heart. The orange arrows show resolution of terminal R wave in aVR and terminal S wave in lead I, after administration of sodium bicarbonate.
Epilepsy Caused by Neurocysticercosis: A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J81P96
In our patient, two lesions were most notable on CT in the frontal and occipital lobes. The lesion in the left frontal lobe (blue circle) was an approximately 1.5 centimeter (cm) rounded area with rim enhancement and surrounding hypodensity, consistent with vasogenic edema. A similar sized low-density area in the left occipital lobe (red circle) was noted, with increased peripheral density at the 3 o’clock position representing calcification. There were no areas of apparent hemorrhage or midline shift. The final radiology report concluded there were multiple cystic lesions, one with surrounding vasogenic edema in the left frontal lobe.
A Case of Community-Acquired Tuberculosis in an Infant Presenting with Pneumonia Refractory to Antibiotic TherapyDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8X07M
Chest radiographs during the initial presentation at seven weeks of life demonstrated right lower lobe (RLL) air space opacity on both PA and lateral views, compatible with pneumonia (referenced by yellow and green arrows, respectively). Repeat chest radiograph performed 12 days after the initial imaging revealed persistent right lower lobe opacity and right hilar fullness, seen as an opacified projection off of the mediastinal border as compared with the prior image, concerning for lymphadenopathy (designated by the aqua arrow). On the third presentation, computed tomography (CT) of the chest with intravenous contrast found persistent right lower lobe consolidation, innumerable 2-3 mm nodules, and surrounding ground glass opacities. This is best visualized as scattered areas of hyperdensity in the lung parenchyma. Axial images confirmed the presence of right hilar as well as subcarinal lymphadenopathy (indicated by white and pink arrows, respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain with IV contrast was performed which showed a punctate focus of enhancement in the left precentral sulcus compatible with a tuberculoma (denoted with red arrow).
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Electronic Cigarette or Vaping-Associated Lung Injury Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8S65P
The CT of the chest with contrast showed subcutaneous emphysema (green star), pneumomediastinum (yellow arrow), and pneumopericardium (purple asterix) without an identifiable tracheal tear. Extensive air was visualized as hypodense areas within the chest wall within the soft tissue. The image also detailed a hypodense area surrounding the heart consistent with pneumopericardium. No disruption of the trachea was present. Additionally, the CT of the chest also showed bilateral ground glass airspace opacities (red stars) with subpleural sparing that is consistent with EVALI findings.2,5 These specific findings have been seen in many of the EVALI cases.5 This image is interesting because there is extensive pneumomediastinum with no clearly identifiable cause. The imaging shows no esophageal or tracheal or lung injury, so it is important to note relevant information collected during interview regarding patient’s recent history of vaping THC, especially when establishing a differential diagnosis.