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Two photographs of patients neck, both showcasing no obvious erythema, bruising, or swelling which is noteworthy because there is potential for airway compromise but there was nothing visible to indicate that on exam. CTA of neck showing thyroid nodule and potential thyroid hemorrhage (outlined in orange) on the left without evidence of airway compromise at the time of CT scan. Official read by attending radiologist states there is a “heterogeneous left thyroid nodule measuring 3 cm. Findings are suggestive of multinodular goiter with possible acute hemorrhage. Adjacent tract of soft tissue stranding in the anterior left neck with mild adjacent fascial thickening. This could represent small amount of hemorrhage or could be inflammatory.”
ED work-up: BMP within normal limits (WNL), white blood cell (WBC) 27.4, ECG showed sinus tachycardia, nonspecific ST segment abnormalities, BNP and troponin were within normal limits, HR 146 beats/minute, CT abdomen/pelvis showed a 10-cm-heterogenous enhancing left adrenal mass (anterior-posterior view [shown in red], lateral view [shown in blue]).
By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1) understand the essential physical exam components necessary to evaluate for etiologies of acute encephalopathy, 2) review laboratory and imaging studies to obtain for evaluation of acute encephalopathy and/or suspected thyroid storm, as well as the rationale behind ordering each study, 3) identify underlying etiologies or pathologies for developing thyroid storm, 4) discuss treatment for thyroid storm.
By the end of this simulation-based session, the learner will be able to: 1) Recognize the signs and symptoms of thyroid storm and appropriately diagnose a patient with thyroid storm. 2) Choose appropriate medications for the treatment of thyroid storm. 3) Determine the appropriate disposition for a patient presenting in thyroid storm. 4) Discuss the rationale behind each drug used to treat thyroid storm. 5) List at least three precipitants of thyroid storm.
Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Endocrine and Metabolic Emergencies Small Group ModuleDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8792M
We aim to teach the presentation and management of endocrine emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents.