Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Causing Cardiac Arrest in a Post-Partum Patient – A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8F947
A post-ROSC electrocardiogram revealed ST elevations in leads I, aVL, and V3-V6, with reciprocal ST depressions in leads II, III, and aVF. Initial troponin I level was 0.238 ng/mL and a bedside cardiac ultrasound revealed decreased motion of the anterior wall. Cardiology was consulted and the patient was immediately taken to the catheterization lab where she was found to have long and diffuse luminal narrowing of her distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) resulting in 70% stenosis, consistent with the angiographic appearance of an intramural hematoma caused by dissection (white arrows). No intervention was performed.
His lower extremity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed abnormal signals in his knees, which were most consistent with scurvy. The white arrows on the T1-weight sequence indicate hypointensity (decreased signal or darker region) of the knees. The white arrows in the T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence indicate hyperintensity (increased signal or brighter region) in an MRI of the knees.
A point-of-care ultrasound of the urinary tract was performed, evaluating the kidneys and bladder. When imaging her kidneys, right-sided hydronephrosis was noted with a normal appearance to the left kidney. To further evaluate, a curvilinear probe was placed on her bladder with color doppler to assess for ureteral jets. Ureteral jets are seen as a flurry of color ejecting from each of the ureters as urine is released from the ureterovesical junction. In a healthy patient, this finding should be seen ejecting from both ureters every 1-3 minutes as the kidneys continue to filter the blood and create urine to be stored in the bladder. In our patient, however, ureteral jets were only noted on the left side (arrow), which was significant in further verifying our suspicion of right ureteral obstruction.
Close visual examination revealed erythematous linear papules on her upper and lower back. No bullae, drainage, or sloughing of the skin was present. The rest of her body, including palms, soles, and mucosa, was spared.
Using a curvilinear ultrasound probe, images of the patient were obtained from the left mix-axillary line. These images demonstrate a loculated left-sided pleural effusion (outlined in the attached ultrasound image in blue) that was moderate in size, concerning for an empyema. The diaphragm on the right (red) of the image outlines the inferior margin of the collection of pus, which is seen in the inferior aspect of the left lung. Unfortunately, rib shadows on the left side of the image prevent the full empyema from being captured in this single image. As a result of the bedside ultrasound, however, the patient was rapidly diagnosed with an empyema and was initiated on antibiotics, which is further discussed below. After his bedside ultrasound was completed, his chest x-ray revealed the expected left-sided pleural effusion. Additionally, a CT angiogram of the chest was ordered to rule out a pulmonary embolism, which was negative for an embolism but does redemonstrate the left-sided loculated pleural effusion (outlined on the CT axial and coronal images in blue).
The ultrasound images reveal hepatomegaly and an increased echogenicity of the liver parenchyma that is diffuse. The increased echogenicity can be best appreciated by a comparison to surrounding structures. It is important to note that the increased echogenicity is non-focal and consistent throughout the entire liver in multiple views. These findings can be consistent with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as well as glycogenic hepatopathy.
In the image, one can see significant tracheal deviation around the right side of the mass (black arrows). This degree of deviation would make ventilation in a paralyzed patient extremely difficult, if not impossible.
Initial EKG was concerning for type I Brugada pattern with an incomplete right bundle branch block in V1 & ST segment elevation terminating in an inverted T wave in V2. There are also signs of sodium channel toxicity with a widened QRS complex, tachycardia and a terminal R wave present in aVR where the R wave is bigger than the S wave or the R wave is over 3mm in aVR.
An ultrasound (US) of the abdomen was obtained to evaluate for possible pyloric stenosis (see US transverse/dopper imaging). While imaging showed a normal pyloric channel, it revealed an unexpected finding: a complex cystic mass arising from the right adrenal gland (yellow outline), measuring 5.8 by 4.0 by 6.4 cm with calcifications peripherally and mass effect on the kidney without evidence of vascular flow (blue arrow). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast was subsequently obtained and measured the lesion as 2.8 by 4.6 by 4 cm without evidence of additional masses, lymphadenopathy or left adrenal gland abnormality (see CT axial, coronal, and sagittal imaging).
Facial ultrasound revealed local inflammatory changes such as increased echogenicity and heterogeneity in the soft tissues of the right cheek, suggestive of soft tissue edema. There was evidence of a prominent right parotid gland with increased heterogeneity suggestive of a traumatic injury. Additionally, facial ultrasound demonstrated a 6mm ill-defined anechoic collection within the right cheek without increased doppler flow (green arrow), thought to represent a focal area of edema instead of an abscess.