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A transabdominal point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) was initiated to determine whether an abnormality to the pregnancy could be identified. Curvilinear probe was used. Our transabdominal POCUS, in the transverse plane, showed a heterogenous mass with multiple anechoic areas in the uterus. The white arrow on the ultrasound identifies these findings. The classic “snowstorm” appearance was concerning for molar pregnancy.
At the conclusion of this simulation, the learner will be able to: 1) review the initial management of syncope; 2) utilize laboratory and imaging techniques to diagnose a ruptured ectopic pregnancy; and 3) demonstrate the ability to resuscitate and disposition an unstable ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
A focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam was performed initially to evaluate for intra-abdominal injury given the clinical picture. A phased-array ultrasound transducer was placed in sagittal orientation along the patient’s right and left flank, demonstrating extensive heterogenous fluid collections in Morrison’s pouch (red arrow), subphrenic space (solid green arrow), and splenorenal recess (dashed green arrow). To further evaluate, a phased-array transducer was placed over her pelvic area in transverse orientation, demonstrating, a large, heterogeneous mass (outlined in yellow arrows). The surgical team was promptly consulted and blood products were ordered. Although there was concern for impending hemorrhagic shock due to patient’s presenting tachycardia, the patient was hemodynamically stable enough for a CT scan of her chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The CT scan showed large-volume ascites, which exerted mass effect on all abdominal organs with centralization of bowel loops. Additionally, there was a large, 6.4 x 6.8 x 10.9-centimeter, midline pelvic mass (outlined in blue arrows).
By the end of this simulation session, learners will be able to: 1) demonstrate care of a gravid patient with altered mental status; 2) demonstrate care of a gravid patient with seizures; 3) recognize care involved in assessment of fetal status; 4) execute appropriate subspecialty consultation; 5) recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of eclampsia; 6) distinguish different treatment options for eclampsia; 7) identify magnesium toxicity and reversal agent; and 8) differentiate the spectrum of preeclampsia.
At the end of this oral boards session, examinees will: 1) Demonstrate ability to obtain a complete medical history including a detailed obstetric history. 2) Demonstrate the ability to perform a detailed physical examination in a postpartum female patient who presents with a seizure. 3) Investigate the broad differential diagnoses which include electrolyte imbalances, brain tumor, meningitis or encephalitis, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome and eclampsia. 4) List the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies to differentiate eclampsia from other diagnoses (complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, magnesium level, pregnancy testing, urinalysis, and computed tomography [CT] scan of the head). 5) Identify a postpartum eclampsia patient and manage appropriately (administer IV magnesium therapy, administer IV antihypertensive therapy, emergent consultation with an obstetrician). 6) Provide appropriate disposition to the intensive care unit after consulting with an obstetrician.
A sagittal view from computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated fat stranding beneath the inferior margin of the liver (outlined in red). The axial view showed fat stranding adjacent to the ascending colon without significant colon wall thickening (arrow). Fat stranding can occur as a hazy increased attenuation (brightness) or a more distinct reticular pattern.
By the end of this simulation, participants will be able to: 1) recognize post-termination hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock; 2) demonstrate appropriate acute resuscitation for a patient with hemorrhagic shock; 3) review the differential diagnosis for a patient with post-termination hemorrhage; 4) identify the indications for massive transfusion protocol.
The gravid watermelon is a cost-effective model that uses common materials from the supermarket and emergency department (ED), using a carved-out watermelon as a base, representing the peritoneal cavity. Inexpensive respiratory tubing is used to represent intestine; watered down gelatin and a small doll in a deflated rubber/plastic ball is used to represent a gravid uterus. The bladder is represented by an unused, water-filled exam glove, and watermelon pulp represents blood clots and mesentery. The gravid watermelon is covered with an elastic bandage to represent tough muscle and fascia, and topped with a shower curtain for skin.
The CT scan with oral contrast in the emergency department revealed a large heterogeneous abdominopelvic mass measuring 13.2 x 18.8 x 23.1 cm (see white lines), suggestive of an ovarian teratoma from the right ovary. This mass included fat, fluid, calcifications (see yellow arrows), and enhancing soft tissue components. The teratoma resulted in mass effect upon large and small bowel loops (see blue highlighted areas), inferior vena cava (IVC), distal aorta (see red highlighted area) and right common iliac artery. A small volume of ascites was also observed. There was no evidence of bowel obstruction, vascular occlusion or other significant emergent finding. Additionally, transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound images were obtained. The transabdominal image visualized the abdominopelvic mass (see four yellow stars). The transvaginal image visualized a cross section of the teratoma (see four red stars) in relation to the bladder (see four blue stars).
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We aim to teach the presentation and management of cardiovascular emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents.