Case Report of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus with Concurrent ParotitisDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8R93N
The presence of soft tissue stranding about the parotid gland suggested an underlying inflammatory or infectious process of the parotid gland. Cellulitis was considered as a possible diagnosis as well, given the presence of soft tissue stranding in the dermis that is adjacent to the parotid gland. Fortunately, no enhancement was seen in local muscles, fascia, or bones to suggest a myositis, fasciitis, or osteomyelitis. By using the anatomy of the patient and understanding the changes that occur on CT when inflammation is present, the appropriate depth and location of infection can be made, allowing for appropriate treatment regimens.
Use of An Ophthalmology Tutorial to Improve Resident Comfort with the Emergency Eye ExamDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J86H0M
By the end of this small group didactic, learners will be able to: 1) demonstrate ability to focus on the various components of the slit lamp exam 2) demonstrate understanding of a systematic approach to the eye exam 3) demonstrate appropriate use of the Diaton, iCare, and Tonopen tonometers.
Vitreous Hemorrhage Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J88D3B
Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) revealed hyperechoic material in the vitreous consistent with a vitreous hemorrhage. On the ultrasound images, there is visible hyperechoic debris seen floating in the vitreous as the patient moves his eye. Since the vitreous is typically anechoic (black) in color on ultrasound, turning up the gain on the ultrasound machine makes these findings easier to see and often highlights abnormalities, such as this hemorrhage (see annotated still).
Case Report of a Man with Right Eye Pain and Double VisionDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8KW7G
ABSTRACT: A 39-year-old previously healthy male presented with three days of right eye pressure and one day of binocular diplopia. He denied history of trauma, headache, or other neurological complaints. He had normal visual acuity, normal intraocular pressure, intact convergence, and no afferent pupillary defect. His neurologic examination was non-focal except for an inability to adduct the right eye past midline
Build Your Own Eye: A Method for Teaching Ocular Anatomy and PathophysiologyDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8GS8W
By the end of this session the participant will be able to: 1) Describe basic anatomy of the eye, 2) Build a basic model of the eye, 3) Identify which diseases are associated with which parts of the eye, 4) Identify the pathophysiology behind diseases of the eye, 5) Name correct treatment for each disease.
The Eyes Have It: A Low-Cost Model for Corneal Foreign Body Removal TrainingDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J82S85
ABSTRACT: Audience: This corneal foreign body simulator is designed to instruct junior emergency medicine (EM) residents and medical students with an interest in emergency medicine. Introduction: Eye complaints are common in the emergency department (ED), accounting for approximately 2 million ED visits each year.1 Corneal foreign bodies (CFB) account for approximately 7.5% of these presentations, and many EM providers are
Posterior Vitreous DetachmentDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J89K9N
Ocular ultrasound was performed and demonstrated a thin, slightly echogenic strand (blue arrow) extending from the posterior eye into the vitreous humor (yellow arrow) which was hyperkinetic with extraocular motion. These findings are consistent with a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD).
Macula-Off Retinal Detachment Identified on Bedside UltrasoundDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8WP8K
Point-of-care ultrasound was performed, demonstratinga free-floating, serpiginous, hyperechoic membrane (R) tethered at the optic nerve (ON) and ora serrata (OS), but detached at the macula (M) lateral to the optic nerve. This is diagnostic for macula-off retinal detachment. It can be differentiated from macula-on retinal detachment, in which the hyperechoic retina would appear attached posteriorly at the location of the macula just lateral to the optic nerve. Ophthalmology was consulted, agreed with the diagnosis of macula-off retinal detachment, and took the patient to the OR for laser photocoagulation.
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension and Optic Nerve Sheath DiameterDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J84631
Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) was measured via ultrasound with diameter 5.7mm on left and 6.2mm on right. In order to measure ONSD via optic ultrasound the high-frequency linear array probe (7.5-10-MHz or higher) is utilized in B-mode. The patient is positioned supine and an occlusive dressing, such as Tegaderm, is placed over a closed eyelid with copious conductive gel on top of the dressing. Being careful not to put pressure on the globe, an axial cross-sectional image of the globe is obtained. As demonstrated in the image “annotated left eye ONSD pre-lumbar puncture,” there are two main anechoic areas of the globe, the anterior chamber and the vitreous humor. These anechoic structures are separated by the hyperechoic iris, which surfaces the hyper-echoic-lined lens. At the back of the vitreous humor is the retina, which leads posteriorly into the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the hypoechoic structure posterior to the retina and surrounded by the hyperechoic subarachnoid space, which is encased by the hypoechoic dura mater. The outer edge of the hypoechoic dura matter is where the ONSD is measured.1 The user applies calipers to measure 3mm perpendicularly behind the retina along the hypoechoic optic nerve, and at this level the transverse dimensions of the ONSD are measured using calipers as shown in the images.Computed tomography (CT) of the head was performed and showed no abnormalities. Lumbar puncture was performed in left lateral decubitus position revealing elevated opening pressure of 29cm H2O. Thirty-five mL of clear cerebral spinal fluid was drained and was negative for all infectious studies. Optic nerve sheath diameter was again measured post-lumbar puncture with diameters 5.4mm on left and 5.4mm on right.
Open Globe with Intraocular Foreign BodyDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8S348
On physical exam, his extraocular movements were intact. The right anterior chamber appeared cloudy, particularly nasal to the pupil. The conjunctiva of the right eye was injected. The right pupil was 3 mm and sluggishly reactive and appeared slightly irregular (see yellow arrow). Of note, the right eye also had a 1 mm hypopyon, indicating inflammation of the anterior chamber, which was visible on slit lamp examination (not pictured). There was no fluorescein uptake or Seidel sign. His visual acuity was 20/60 OD (right eye) and 20/20 OS (left eye).