The patient initially received a venous doppler ultrasound that showed no evidence of a right or left femoropopliteal venous thrombus. Due to the high suspicion of a DVT given the symmetric swelling to the entire limb and acute onset of pain, a CTV was ordered. The transverse view of the CTV showed chronic thrombotic occlusion of the proximal left common iliac vein associated with compression from the right common iliac artery (figure 1, transverse image of CTA), as well as thrombotic occlusion of the left internal iliac vein tributary and corresponding left ascending lumbar vein. Given the previously mentioned clinical context, these features suggested the diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome.
Physical exam revealed a comfortable-appearing male patient with tachycardia and a regular cardiac rhythm. The genitourinary exam indicated significant erythema and fluctuance of the bilateral lower buttocks with extension to the perineum. Black eschar and ecchymosis were also noted at the perineum. There was significant tenderness to palpation that extended beyond the borders of erythema. There was no palpable crepitus on initial examination. Physical exam was otherwise unremarkable.
A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast for evaluation of new onset abdominal pain and distension was obtained in the emergency department. The axial view (CT Image A) shows the coil pack from the prior coil-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration procedure, seen in the left renal vein and gastric varix (red arrow). The path of the coil (yellow arrow) is continuous into the inferior vena cava (CT Image B). It is then seen (CT Image C) situated in the right ventricle (green arrow). Finally, the coil pack is seen in a coronal section, demonstrating its upward path (blue arrow) in the inferior vena cava. (CT Image D). Additional findings included ascites with advanced cirrhosis. As noted in the CT images, a vascular embolization coil was seen within a varix near the junction of the left renal vein. This appeared to have unraveled and extended superiorly into the inferior vena cava and ultimately into the right atrium and right ventricle.
Case Report of a Pelvic Kidney with Ureteral Obstruction from Inguinal Hernia Entrapment and Concurrent Cryptorchid TestisDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8F345
The patient was afebrile with normal lactate and white blood cell count. Initial CT imaging showed an ectopic right pelvic kidney with entrapment of his right ureter within an indirect right inguinal hernia causing severe hydronephrosis (coronal: white arrow). Also discovered was an ovoid hypodensity in the right anterior pelvis consistent with right undescended testis (axial: orange arrow; coronal: green arrow) that was previously unknown to the patient, with a normal left scrotal testis (axial: red arrowhead; coronal: blue arrowhead). Other potential etiologies of the patient’s symptoms could include appendicitis or incarcerated inguinal hernia, though the imaging results and absence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome made these causes less likely.
Computerized tomography with angiography (CTA) of the entire aorta demonstrated an occluded distal infrarenal aorta with extension into the bilateral common femoral arteries (red outline), lack of flow through femoral arteries (yellow outline) and trickle flow reconstituted distally consistent with aortoiliac occlusive disease (blue outline). Some small segments of the proximal celiac axis showed signs of occlusion (purple outline). A short segment of non-specific bowel wall thickening, which may have been related to ischemic changes, was also seen (not seen on images). The included coronal slice shows the extent of the bilateral occlusive burden, with three-dimensional reconstruction emphasizing the same findings.
The CT imaging of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated multiple loops of dilated small bowel with a whirl sign (red arrow) within the mid abdomen and a transition point (green arrow), suspicious for closed loop bowel obstruction and internal hernia.
A focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam was performed initially to evaluate for intra-abdominal injury given the clinical picture. A phased-array ultrasound transducer was placed in sagittal orientation along the patient’s right and left flank, demonstrating extensive heterogenous fluid collections in Morrison’s pouch (red arrow), subphrenic space (solid green arrow), and splenorenal recess (dashed green arrow). To further evaluate, a phased-array transducer was placed over her pelvic area in transverse orientation, demonstrating, a large, heterogeneous mass (outlined in yellow arrows). The surgical team was promptly consulted and blood products were ordered. Although there was concern for impending hemorrhagic shock due to patient’s presenting tachycardia, the patient was hemodynamically stable enough for a CT scan of her chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The CT scan showed large-volume ascites, which exerted mass effect on all abdominal organs with centralization of bowel loops. Additionally, there was a large, 6.4 x 6.8 x 10.9-centimeter, midline pelvic mass (outlined in blue arrows).
A Case Report of Aortic Dissection Involving the Aortic Root, Left Common Carotid Artery, and Iliac ArteriesDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8V93K
Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the thoracic and abdominal aorta revealed an aortic dissection of the ascending aorta, with a dissection flap starting from the aortic root/aortic annulus (yellow arrows), extending into the aortic arch (light blue arrowhead) and involving the left common carotid artery (purple arrow), left subclavian artery (pink arrow), extending to the descending aorta (red arrows), and into the bilateral iliacs (green arrows). The true lumen (red star) and false lumen (blue star) created by the dissection flap can best be seen in the axial views.
At the time of presentation to the ED, laboratory results were significant for leukocytosis to 11.8 x 109 white blood cells/L and a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 52 mmHg on venous blood gas. Computed tomography (CT) of the soft tissue of the neck with contrast showed edematous swelling of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic fold with internal foci of gas (blue arrow) and partial effacement of the laryngopharyngeal airway and scattered cervical lymph nodes bilaterally (Figure 1). Findings were consistent with epiglottitis containing nonspecific air. Additionally, the pathognomonic “thumbprint sign” (yellow arrow) was found on lateral x-ray of the neck (Figure 2). The CT findings as shown in figure 3 illustrate lateral view of the swelling of the epiglottis, gas, and blockage of the airway.
On regular CT scan imaging, the urinary bladder is partially distended with contrast with no focal wall thickening or intraluminal hematoma. There is an intraperitoneal bladder rupture with site of rupture likely at the dome of the bladder. The bladder is outlined in red, and the bladder rupture boundaries are outlined in yellow, showing the urine as free fluid escaping into the intraperitoneal space. We also provide these findings in an axial CT in video format. On CT cystography, there is a significant amount of contrast-enhanced urine noted within the visualized peritoneal spaces. The small amount of air present anteriorly is related to the catheterization because a Foley balloon is present within the bladder. These findings are annotated with the peritoneal spaces outlined in yellow, the air in the blue outline, and the bladder in the red outline. All of these CT cystography findings are also presented in an axial view in video format.