At the end of this oral board session, examinees will: 1) demonstrate ability to obtain a complete medical history including detailed cardiac history, 2) demonstrate the ability to perform a detailed physical examination in a patient with cardiac complaints, 3) investigate the broad differential diagnoses which include acute coronary syndrome (ACS), electrolyte imbalances, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, aortic dissection and arrhythmias, 4) obtain and interpret the cardiac monitor rhythm strip to identify complete heart block, 5) list the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies to differentiate arrhythmia from other diagnoses (complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, magnesium level, EKG, troponin level, chest radiograph), 6) identify a patient with complete heart block and manage appropriately (administer IV atropine, attempt transcutaneous pacing, place a transvenous pacemaker, emergent consultation with interventional cardiology), 7) provide appropriate disposition to intensive care after consultation with interventional cardiologist.
At the end of this practice oral boards case, the learner will: 1) assess a patient with altered mental status in an oral boards format; 2) review appropriate laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging; 3) identify signs and symptoms of thyroid storm and 4) review appropriate pharmacologic therapies with the proper sequence and timing.
At the end of this oral boards session, examinees will: 1) Demonstrate ability to obtain a complete medical history including a detailed obstetric history. 2) Demonstrate the ability to perform a detailed physical examination in a postpartum female patient who presents with a seizure. 3) Investigate the broad differential diagnoses which include electrolyte imbalances, brain tumor, meningitis or encephalitis, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome and eclampsia. 4) List the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies to differentiate eclampsia from other diagnoses (complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, magnesium level, pregnancy testing, urinalysis, and computed tomography [CT] scan of the head). 5) Identify a postpartum eclampsia patient and manage appropriately (administer IV magnesium therapy, administer IV antihypertensive therapy, emergent consultation with an obstetrician). 6) Provide appropriate disposition to the intensive care unit after consulting with an obstetrician.
At the end of this oral boards session, learners will be able to: 1) discuss the appropriate laboratory testing and workup for a patient with undifferentiated altered mental status, 2) discuss the importance of obtaining an ECG in a timely manner in order to investigate the broad differential of altered mental status, 3) identify the classic ECG findings of a patient with TCA overdose, 4) review the treatment of TCA overdose, 5) discuss the appropriate disposition of a patient with TCA overdose.
By the end of this oral boards case, learners will: 1) demonstrate evaluation of a patient presenting with toxic ingestion, including obtaining pertinent history, 2) review the signs and symptoms of the different presenting phases of acute iron ingestion, and 3) demonstrate appropriate treatment of iron overdose, namely, iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine.
We aim to teach the presentation and management of cardiovascular emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents.
At the end of this oral boards session, examinees will: 1) Demonstrate ability to perform a thorough neurologic examination including full cranial nerve exam, National Institutes of Health (NIH) stroke scale assessment, strength and sensation and reflex testing, pronator drift, speech repetition. 2) Differentiate between Bell’s Palsy and acute stroke with facial paralysis. 3) List appropriate laboratory testing for a case of peripheral facial nerve paralysis (basic metabolic panel [BMP]; complete blood count [CBC]; coagulation studies if considering lumbar puncture; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test if high-risk by history, or if bilateral; Lyme titer if in endemic area, or if bilateral). 4) Select appropriate treatments (steroids, eye lubricant and patch, PCP referral) for peripheral facial nerve paralysis.
By the end of this oral boards case, the learner will be able to: 1. List the potential causes of vaginal bleeding in pregnancy after 20 weeks including placental abruption, placenta previa and vasa previa. 2. Describe the bedside stabilization and evaluation in a pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding after 20 weeks. a) Stabilize the mother (patient) including placing two large bore intravenous (IV) lines, administer an IV fluid bolus, obtaining complete blood count (CBC), coagulation studies, and type & cross matching blood. b) Transvaginal ultrasound to determine the placental location. c) Sterile speculum examination. A digital or speculum pelvic examination should NOT be performed until a transvaginal ultrasound is performed to determine placental location. The resident should understand that performing a digital or speculum exam in a patient with placenta previa or vasa previa can cause or exacerbate hemorrhage. If these two conditions are not present on ultrasound, then a sterile speculum exam may be performed to further examine the bleeding. 3. Contrast the typical presentation of placenta previa with that of placental abruption. a) Placenta Previa usually causes painless vaginal bleeding. Part of the placenta is located near or over the internal cervical orifice. b) Placental Abruption usually causes painful vaginal bleeding. There is premature separation of the placenta from the uterine lining. 4) Describe the appropriate disposition of a patient with a pregnancy over 20 weeks with vaginal bleeding. After initial workup and stabilization these women are usually admitted for fetal monitoring, observation and consultation by the obstetrician (OB/gyn).
Neutropenia is a common oncologic emergency, and it frequently develops as a result of myelosuppression from chemotherapy. Neutropenia is defined as absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <1000/mm3, with severe neutropenia being defined as ANC<500/mm3. Patients with fever and neutropenia should be presumed to have infectious etiology and started on antibiotics immediately. The 48-hour mortality associated with an untreated infection is 20%-50%.
By completing this oral board case learners will 1) evaluate a patient with altered mental status and discuss the differential diagnosis of a patient with altered mental status and weakness; 2) recognize the signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning; 3) manage treatment of a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning