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The patient was in noticeable respiratory distress and had oxygen saturation of 94% on room air. Bilateral jugular venous distention with severe right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy and diffuse bilateral wheezing was present. Although muffled heart sounds and hypotension are part of Beck’s Triad, these were not present in this case. Electrocardiogram obtained on arrival showed a sinus tachycardia with low-voltage QRS complexes and electrical alternans. Low voltage QRS can be seen on the ECG provided and is demonstrated by the low amplitude of the QRS complexes seen on all the leads. Electrical alternans may have an alternating axis or amplitudes of the QRS complex. Alternating axis is best visualized in V4-V6 on this ECG while alternating amplitudes are seen throughout the rest of the ECG. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the chest revealed a large pericardial effusion with bilateral pulmonary emboli and a right upper lobe mass. A bedside transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was then performed and confirmed the large effusion, but also showed right ventricular collapse during diastole, indicative of cardiac tamponade.
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with Suspected Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Case ReportDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8M353
Initial vital signs were unremarkable, including oxygen saturation of 98% on room air. The patient did not exhibit any signs of respiratory distress, and the lungs were clear to auscultation bilaterally. Labs were obtained, which showed normal hemoglobin at 15.8. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (Video 1) showed a large left upper lobe arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with large feeding arteries and tortuous dilated draining veins (red arrow) measuring up to 3.8cm. Imaging also demonstrated nonspecific multifocal ground-glass opacities, which may have represented pulmonary hemorrhage (blue outline) from AVM without evidence of contrast extravasation to suggest active bleeding.
The post intubation chest x-ray (CXR) showed severe rightward displacement of the trachea (purple arrow). The computed tomography angiogram (CTA) showed transection of the left common carotid artery (LCCA), extensive neck hematoma without extravasation and severe tracheal deviation to the right (blue arrow). The intravenous (IV) contrasted chest computed tomography (CT) image showed a lateral contrast projection from the aortic arch at the level of the isthmus (green and pink arrows). There were no other significant injuries reported on the CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis.
ABSTRACT: Audience: Our target audience includes emergency medicine residents/physicians. Introduction: Treating cardiac arrest is a common theme during simulated emergency medicine training; however, less time is focused on treating refractory cases of cardiac arrest. There are varying definitions of refractory cardiac arrest, but it is most commonly defined as the inability to obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after 10-30
By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: (1) describe a diagnostic differential for dizziness (2) describe the pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade (3) describe the acute management of cardiac tamponade, including fluid bolus and pericardiocentesis (4) describe the electrocardiogram (ECG) findings of pericardial effusion (5) describe the ultrasound findings of cardiac tamponade (6) describe the indications for emergent bedside pericardiocentesis versus medical stabilization and delayed pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade (7) describe the procedural steps for pericardiocentesis, and (8) describe your state’s laws regarding disclosure for sentinel events.
In route, it was proposed that this patient was suffering from a dysrhythmia due to the transient episodes of syncope with lack of ventricular activity on telemetry. Upon close examination of the rhythm strips as well as the ECG, P waves can be visualized without any accompanying QRS complexes lasting multiple seconds (ED ECG blue arrows). Additionally, the rhythm has an intrinsic rate of 100 beats per minute and has a consistent morphology with no evidence of ventricular activity due to the lack of QRS complexes. As a result, the rhythm likely originates in the atria with no passage of impulses into the ventricles through the atrioventricular (AV) node versus an accelerated ventricular rhythm where QRS complexes would be seen.8 These rhythm strips demonstrate an example of VS. There is preserved native atrial automaticity, with an intact sinoatrial (SA) node, with a complete lack of ventricular electrical activity
The initial ECG obtained upon arrival shows what is commonly referred to as a sine wave pattern. This patient does have a biventricular pacemaker which would ordinarily create a wide QRS complex mimicking an intraventricular conduction delay. However, the QRS complex here is exceptionally wide, in excess of 400 milliseconds (normal: less than 120 milliseconds). As the QRS widens, alongside other deflections present on the ECG, it morphologically mimics a mathematical sine wave.
The associated images demonstrate the transverse, sagittal, and coronal views of a 6.8 cm infrarenal ruptured AAA continuous with a 4 cm right common iliac aneurysm (transverse, sagittal and coronal). Active hemorrhage was seen contained within the aortic wall, and retroperitoneal bleeding can be appreciated with asymmetric enlargement of the left psoas muscle (coronal - red arrow).1 Plaque and calcifications with a residual opacified true lumen is also present (transverse – red star, sagittal – red arrow). Known as the tangential calcium sign, this is a common radiologic finding of AAAs.2
The electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus tachycardia with ST segment elevation in lead aVR (black arrows) and diffuse ST depressions concerning for possible ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Given the events reported and the patient’s neurologic exam without sedation, non-contrast CT of the head was ordered; imaging showed evidence of a large subarachnoid hemorrhage, mostly at the level of the Circle of Willis (black arrow) concerning for an aneurysmal bleed as well as mild generalized white matter density suggestive of cerebral edema.
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Ascending Thoracic Aortic Dissection: A Case Report of Rapid Detection Via Emergency Echocardiography with Suprasternal Notch ViewsDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8WW6W
Video of parasternal long-axis bedside transthoracic echocardiogram: The initial images showed grossly normal left ventricular function, and no pericardial effusion or evidence of cardiac tamponade. However, the proximal aorta beyond the aortic valve was poorly-visualized in this window.