Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome
This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication.
Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph). Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids.
By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1) Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2) Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3) Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4) Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5) Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient.
This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.
Medical simulation, pediatrics, toxic shock syndrome, sepsis, pediatric sepsis.