Zombie Cruise Ship Virtual Escape Room for POCUS Pulmonary: Scan Your Way Out
Targeted audience could be learners in medical field with basic knowledge of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), pulmonary and emergency medicine for example, medical students, emergency medicine residents (1st-3rd year), emergency physicians at all level of trainings, or emergency medicine physician’s assistants.
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is rapidly becoming an essential part of emergency medicine and patient care .1,2 POCUS can provide more detailed clinical information when used in conjunction with a physical examination, overall aiding clinicians’ decision-making capacity.3 POCUS also proves a cost-effective tool in reducing the number of advanced imaging studies ordered and unnecessary patient radiation exposure.3,4 Performing POCUS has also proved beneficial for patient satisfaction because it increases the amount of face-to-face time spent with the patient while also providing live imaging interpretation during the emergency department visits .3,5,6 POCUS-Pulmonary can also create a safer environment for both medical staff and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.6 Performing POCUS-Pulmonary on suspected COVID-19 patients can limit the number of patients receiving thoracic CT studies to confirm COVID-19 related pneumonia.6,7 Performing POCUS-Pulmonary reduces the number of patients transferred between the radiology department and the emergency department, significantly reduces overall possible COVID-19 exposures, and reduces equipment cleaning time.6 Given the overall reduction of advanced imaging studies ordered, CT scanners would be more readily available for critical care patients, such as trauma or other hemodynamic instability.6 Emergency providers practicing in rural areas with limited resources may benefit from the use of POCUS -Pulmonary, facilitating better patient care at decreased exposure-rate, cleaning cost, and overall increase in patient satisfaction given more bedside patient-provider communication.6-8 POCUS-Pulmonary is a crucial clinical skill for emergency medicine providers everywhere.6,8 Clinicians should be able to perform POCUS-Pulmonary, interpret image findings, and develop a treatment plan promptly.9
By the end of performing the Zombie Cruise Ship Virtual Escape Room, learners will be able to: 1) recognize sonographic signs of A-line, B-line, Barcode sign, Bat sign, Seashore Sign, Plankton sign, Jellyfish Sign, Lung point, lung lockets, and Lung pulse; 2) differentiate sonographic findings of pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumonia, COVID 19 pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion from normal lung findings; 3) distinguish pneumonia from atelectasis by recognizing dynamic air bronchogram; and 4) recognize indications for performing POCUS pulmonary such as dyspnea, blunt trauma, fall, cough and/or heart failure.
This group-based learning program was designed for use in virtual meetings, lectures, and in small-group learning activities, such as didactic and EM conferences. A Google form was used to create a virtual escape room for learners in which they had to take quizzes to advance to the next level. Learners may enact teamwork through discussion and group effort, or respond individually to ultrasound pulmonary questions.
Learners will take pre and post-test assessment to compare the learners POCUS-Pulmonary knowledge before and after small group, virtual escape room learning. All participants in the virtual escape room game are given a pre and post-test assessment comprised of seventeen total questions: two questions asking the participant’s training level, and fifteen POCUS-Pulmonary questions. Pre and Post-test questions are identical; however, the participants’ answers to the pre-test assessment are not revealed to them on completion. Instead, participants receive a letter grade on completing the pre-test assessment. Participants complete the pre and post-test assessments over fifteen minutes allotted before and after the virtual escape room. Upon completing the post-test assessment, a letter grade and the correct answers were given to the participants.
Twenty-four emergency medicine resident physicians (PGY 1-3)) participated in the Zombie Cruise Ship Escape Room pre-test, while a total of twenty-three resident physicians participated in the post-test assessment. The pre-test data showed an average of 10.33 points, compared to post-test data, which showed 11.91 points. There was an improvement of two points on the median score with a median pre-test score of 10 vs. the post-test median of 12.
The virtual zombie cruise ship experience proved a practical and useful tool in increasing overall participants’ interest in POCUS pulmonary during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants had higher retention after actively discussing and researching the most up-to-date clinical information during the virtual and in-person small group meetings. The game encouraged participants to make decisions quickly. This pace created a fun competition between participants who genuinely enjoyed the learning experience even during the COVID-19 pandemic via Zoom/Google Meet virtual conferences. By creating a virtual escape learning tool, learners can experience teamwork-based learning without concern for group size limitations during the pandemic.
Sonographic findings of pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, normal lung, A-line, lack of A-line, presence of B-line, Lung sliding, M mode, dynamic air bronchogram, lung rockets, Bar code Sign, Bat Sign, lung pulse, lung point, hepatization, Seashore Sign, Plankton Sign, Jellyfish Sign, and subpleural pulmonary consolidation