This EKG shows deep, inverted T waves that are most pronounced in V2-V4, and are associated with continued T wave inversions in V5 and V6 and ST segment changes in V1-V3.
The ECG shows ST-segment depressions in precordial leads V3 through V6, and limb leads I, II, and aVL, and 1 mm of ST-segment elevation in aVR. The initial troponin I was elevated at 1.37 ng/mL (upper limit of normal 0.40). Cardiology decided to delay catheterization until the next day when diffuse coronary disease was discovered (including 90% of the left circumflex stenosis, 60% proximal and 75% mid-left anterior descending stenosis, 75% third diagonal branch stenosis, and 90% posterior descending artery stenosis). The following day, the patient went to the operating room for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
The video shows a subxiphoid view of the heart with evidence of a large pericardial effusion with tamponade – note the anechoic stripe in the pericardial sac (see red arrow). This video demonstrates paradoxical right ventricular collapse during diastole and right atrial collapse during systole which is indicative of tamponade.1,2 Figure 1 is from the same patient and shows sonographic pulsus paradoxus. This is an apical 4 chamber view of the heart with the sampling gate of the pulsed wave doppler placed over the mitral valve. The Vpeak max and Vpeak min are indicated. If there is more than a 25% difference with inspiration between these 2 values, this is highly suggestive of tamponade.1 In this case, there is a 32.4% difference between the Vpeak max 69.55 cm/s and Vpeak min 46.99 cm/s.
Bedside echocardiography showed the findings consistent with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Echocardiographic images are shown in subxiphoid (A) and apical four chamber (B) views. Note the apical ballooning appearance (asterisk) of the left ventricle (LV).
Initial ECG shows tall, peaked T waves, most prominently in V3 and V4, as well as QRS widening. These findings are consistent with hyperkalemia, which was promptly treated. Follow-up ECG post-treatment shows narrowing of the QRS complexes and normalization of peaked T waves.
The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line), suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows) compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow). There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows).
The initial EKG showed wide complex, irregular tachycardia > 200 bpm (EKG 1). Given the possibility of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW), procainamide was given to the patient. The patient’s heart rate responded and decreased to 120-140 bpm with narrowing of the QRS complex. A repeat EKG showed narrow complex tachycardia without P waves approximately 120 bpm (EKG 2). Once the procainamide infusion was complete, the patient had converted to sinus rhythm with a delta wave now apparent, consistent with WPW (EKG 3).
Bedside ultrasound revealed the presence of a left atrial mass that appeared to be tethered to the mitral valve. The mass was best viewed on ultrasound in the apical four-chamber window with the phased array probe placed over the patients’ point of maximal impact (PMI), with the patient in left lateral decubitus position.
The ECG shows diffuse ST- elevation. The patient also has mild PR-depression, most notably in the inferior and lateral leads. The patient also has minimal PR elevation in lead aVR. The patient was diagnosed with acute pericarditis (ECG stage 1).