By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: (1) describe a diagnostic differential for dizziness (2) describe the pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade (3) describe the acute management of cardiac tamponade, including fluid bolus and pericardiocentesis (4) describe the electrocardiogram (ECG) findings of pericardial effusion (5) describe the ultrasound findings of cardiac tamponade (6) describe the indications for emergent bedside pericardiocentesis versus medical stabilization and delayed pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade (7) describe the procedural steps for pericardiocentesis, and (8) describe your state’s laws regarding disclosure for sentinel events.
In route, it was proposed that this patient was suffering from a dysrhythmia due to the transient episodes of syncope with lack of ventricular activity on telemetry. Upon close examination of the rhythm strips as well as the ECG, P waves can be visualized without any accompanying QRS complexes lasting multiple seconds (ED ECG blue arrows). Additionally, the rhythm has an intrinsic rate of 100 beats per minute and has a consistent morphology with no evidence of ventricular activity due to the lack of QRS complexes. As a result, the rhythm likely originates in the atria with no passage of impulses into the ventricles through the atrioventricular (AV) node versus an accelerated ventricular rhythm where QRS complexes would be seen.8 These rhythm strips demonstrate an example of VS. There is preserved native atrial automaticity, with an intact sinoatrial (SA) node, with a complete lack of ventricular electrical activity
The initial ECG obtained upon arrival shows what is commonly referred to as a sine wave pattern. This patient does have a biventricular pacemaker which would ordinarily create a wide QRS complex mimicking an intraventricular conduction delay. However, the QRS complex here is exceptionally wide, in excess of 400 milliseconds (normal: less than 120 milliseconds). As the QRS widens, alongside other deflections present on the ECG, it morphologically mimics a mathematical sine wave.
The associated images demonstrate the transverse, sagittal, and coronal views of a 6.8 cm infrarenal ruptured AAA continuous with a 4 cm right common iliac aneurysm (transverse, sagittal and coronal). Active hemorrhage was seen contained within the aortic wall, and retroperitoneal bleeding can be appreciated with asymmetric enlargement of the left psoas muscle (coronal - red arrow).1 Plaque and calcifications with a residual opacified true lumen is also present (transverse – red star, sagittal – red arrow). Known as the tangential calcium sign, this is a common radiologic finding of AAAs.2
The electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus tachycardia with ST segment elevation in lead aVR (black arrows) and diffuse ST depressions concerning for possible ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Given the events reported and the patient’s neurologic exam without sedation, non-contrast CT of the head was ordered; imaging showed evidence of a large subarachnoid hemorrhage, mostly at the level of the Circle of Willis (black arrow) concerning for an aneurysmal bleed as well as mild generalized white matter density suggestive of cerebral edema.
Ascending Thoracic Aortic Dissection: A Case Report of Rapid Detection Via Emergency Echocardiography with Suprasternal Notch ViewsDOI: https://doi.org/10.21980/J8WW6W
Video of parasternal long-axis bedside transthoracic echocardiogram: The initial images showed grossly normal left ventricular function, and no pericardial effusion or evidence of cardiac tamponade. However, the proximal aorta beyond the aortic valve was poorly-visualized in this window.
After competing this simulation-based session, the learner will be able to: 1) Identify PEA arrest; 2) review the ACLS commonly recognized PEA arrest etiologies via the H &T mnemonic; 3) review and discuss the risks and benefits of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for massive PE.
A bedside ultrasound of the aorta was performed. The proximal, middle, and distal aorta appeared normal in caliber, as demonstrated by the images; however there seemed to be some enlargement at the bifurcation. The bifurcation into the iliac arteries, as highlighted by the yellow arrow, demonstrates a slightly enlarged iliac artery on the left. The aorta was followed below the bifurcation as it divided into the iliac arteries, as shown in the video clip. The ultrasound demonstrated a left iliac artery aneurysm measuring 5.99 cm, as highlighted by the orange circle. There were aneurysms to the bilateral common and internal iliac arteries.
The images show a raised, palpable, purpuric rash on the lower extremities, surrounded by a mild, 1+ non-pitting edema. Several of the lesions are exfoliated with serous discharge. There is no surrounding erythema, fluctuance, or lymphangitis to suggest cellulitis. There was no tenderness to palpation; however, pruritus was exacerbated on palpation.
Through the use of this model and skill session, learners will be able to: 1) discuss the indications, contraindications, and complications associated with ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis; 2) demonstrate an ability to obtain subxiphoid and parasternal long views of the heart; 3) demonstrate an ability to identify pericardial fluid in these two views; and 4) demonstrate proper probe and needle placement to successfully perform an ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis in these two views.