Pediatric Simulation-Based Prehospital Training Course in Botswana
This simulation-based training focuses on the most common and high risk pediatric prehospital scenarios in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The curriculum was developed based on a needs assessment to train Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) prehospital providers in Botswana specifically for pediatric resuscitation and could be used for emergency medical services (EMS) providers in other LMIC. After participating in this curriculum, providers should enhance their assessment and interventions in acutely ill pediatric prehospital patients.
Length of Curriculum:
The entire course was designed to be presented over two days with 6-8 hours of instruction each day.
In recent years, prehospital medicine has shown continued growth in LMICs, specifically in Sub-Saharan Africa. As these programs develop focused training for the pediatric population, equipping the workforce with pediatric resuscitation skills is essential. A few years after its inception, the Botswana MOHW identified deficiencies in their current training program and sought external expertise and educational training. We partnered with the MOHW to create and implement a novel, prehospital simulation curriculum to teach pediatric resuscitation to prehospital providers. Our aim was to create a curriculum based on the needs of the community that could also be implemented in other similar resource-limited settings. This course included didactic sessions, five simulation scenarios using low fidelity mannequins and three pediatric-focused skill sessions. This program was found to be effective based on statistically significant improvement in written and simulation post-test scores.
The objective of this educational project was to design, implement, and evaluate a curriculum relevant to an EMS system based in a LMIC, so that it could be a basis for curricula for use in similar contexts. The educational goal is to improve prehospital providers performance in common pediatric resuscitations.
The educational methods used in this curriculum included simulation using rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP), didactic lectures, and hands on skills training for common pediatric scenarios. Outcomes were measured by comparing performance on written and simulation-based pre-and post-tests.
Participants completed written and simulation-based pre- and post-tests covering the concepts taught in the curriculum. Continuous variables (written and simulation test scores) were compared between two dependent groups (pre- and post-trainings) using paired t-tests.
Mean written test scores increased by 11%, from 75% to 86% (p<0.0001), while mean simulated test scores increased by 22% (from 56% to 78 % (p<0.0001).
The curriculum we developed focused on high-yield pediatric skills based on the needs of the Botswana MOHW EMS program. We believe simulation training was an excellent and effective method for this type of training. We specifically designed RCDP scenarios for the training, due to the limited experience of the prehospital providers at that time. RCDP offers ample opportunities for feedback with immediate practice and improvement. Trainees demonstrated retention of knowledge and improved performance in simulation-based testing. The overall satisfaction level of the trainees was high and suggests additional training would be beneficial and desired. Additionally, as the results of our needs assessment mirrored common chief complaints in other LMIC countries in Sub-Saharan Africa1,2 we feel that this curriculum can be utilized and adopted with minor modifications in other LMIC settings, particularly where EMS programs are developing and in circumstances where few EMS providers have had extensive field experience.
Respiratory distress, asthma, dehydration, hypovolemic shock, hypoglycemia, seizure, toxic ingestion, newborn resuscitation, precipitous delivery, traumatic injury, EMS, Botswana, global health, collaboration, rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP), medical simulation.