Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Obstetric and Gynecologic Emergencies Small Group Module
This curriculum, created and implemented at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, was primarily designed to educate our emergency medicine (EM) residents (PGY1-3) and emergency medicine/internal medicine (EM/IM) residents (PGY1-5) on core obstetrics and gynecology topics in EM. Additional audience members include medical students and faculty physicians.
In 2013, there were over 1 million emergency department visits in the United States which resulted in primary obstetric or gynecologic diagnoses.1 EM Residents must be proficient in the differential diagnosis and management of the wide variety of obstetric and gynecologic emergencies. To do this, we developed a flipped classroom curricular model, which consists of self-directed learning activities completed by learners, followed by small group discussions pertaining to the topic reviewed. The active learning fostered by this type of curriculum increases faculty and learner engagement and interaction time typically absent in traditional lecture-based formats.2-4 Studies have revealed that the application of knowledge through case studies, personal interaction with content experts, and integrated questions are effective learning strategies for EM residents.4-6 The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center EM residency didactic curriculum recently transitioned to a “flipped classroom” approach.7-10 Our didactic curriculum is delivered over the course of 18 months; however, it could easily be adapted to other academic calendar cycles. The flipped classroom curriculum maximizes didactic time and resident engagement, fosters intellectual curiosity and active learning, and meets the needs of today’s learners. 3,6,11
We aim to teach the presentation and management of obstetric and gynecologic emergencies through the creation of a flipped classroom design. This unique, innovative curriculum utilizes resources chosen by education faculty and resident learners, study questions, real-life experiences, and small group discussions in place of traditional lectures. In doing so, a goal of the curriculum is to encourage self-directed learning, improve understanding and knowledge retention, and improve the educational experience of our residents.
The educational strategies used in this curriculum include small group modules authored by education faculty and content experts based on the core EM content. This program also incorporates submission of questions from residents that were developed during their review of the content prior to the session. The Socratic Method, used during small group sessions, encourages active participation; small groups also focus on the synthesis and application of knowledge through the discussion of real life experiences. The use of free open access medical education (FOAM) resources allows learners to work at their own pace and maximize autonomy.
Emergency medicine, flipped classroom, medical education, obstetric and gynecologic emergencies, pedagogy, teaching.